# Tutorials, videos, useful tips for Excel, Outlook and Google Sheets, page 10

## How to use MIRR function in Excel to calculate modified internal rate of return

For many years, finance experts and textbooks have warned about the flaws and deficiencies of the internal rate of return, but many executives keep using it for assessing capital projects. Do they enjoy living on the edge or simply are not aware of the existence of MIRR? Continue reading

## Excel XIRR function to find internal rate of return for non-periodic cash flows

Calculating IRR for periodic cash flows is easy. In real life situations, however, cash inflows and outflows often happen at irregular intervals. Thankfully, Microsoft Excel has a special function to find IRR in such cases, and this tutorial will teach you how to use it. Continue reading

## Google Sheets CONCATENATE function to combine text from cells

"Concatenate" usually means to link something together in a series or a chain. It's what you do whenever you merge text from multiple Google Sheets cells. This article collects the most popular and easy solutions to help you solve the concatenation puzzle. Continue reading

## How to use Excel IRR function to calculate internal rate of return

IRR in Excel is one of the financial functions for calculating the internal rate of return, which is frequently used in capital budgeting to judge projected returns on investments. Continue reading

## How to calculate NPV in Excel - net present value formula examples

Microsoft Excel has a special function for calculating NPV, but its use can be tricky especially if you have little experience in financial modeling. The purpose of this tutorial is to show you how the Excel NPV function works and point out possible pitfalls when calculating the net present value of a series of cash flows. Continue reading

## Excel ribbon: quick guide for beginners

As with other Office applications, Excel ribbon is your primary interface that contains every command and feature you'll ever need. What to know what Excel is capable of? Go explore the ribbon! Continue reading

## Customize Excel ribbon with your own tabs, groups or commands

Introduced in Excel 2007, the ribbon allows you to access most of the commands and features available in Excel. Why would you want to customize the ribbon? Perhaps you will find it convenient to have your own tab with your favorite and most used commands at your fingertips. Continue reading

## How to show, hide and restore missing ribbon in Excel

Ribbon is the central point of whatever you do in Excel, the area where most of features and commands available to you reside. Do you feel the ribbon takes up too much of your screen space? No problem, one click of your mouse, and it is hidden. Continue reading

## Quick Access Toolbar in Excel: how to customize, move, reset and share

Getting to the commands you use most often should be easy. And it is exactly what the Quick Access Toolbar is designed for. Add your favorite commands to the QAT so they are only a click away no matter what ribbon tab you currently have open. Continue reading

## Developer tab in Excel: how to add, use and remove

You want to access one of advanced Excel features but are stuck at the very first step: where's the Developer tab they all talk about? The good news is that the Developer tab is available in every version of Excel though it is not enabled by default. This article shows how to quickly activate it. Continue reading

## Calculating percent change (percentage increase / decrease) in Excel

In Microsoft Excel, there are 6 different functions for calculating variance but all of them are designed to find variance in the classical sense, i.e. how far a set of values are spread out from their average. In this article, you will learn how to calculate percentage variance between two cells. Continue reading

## How to calculate variance in Excel - VAR, VAR.S, VAR.P and other functions

Variance is one of the most useful tools in probability theory and statistics. In science, it describes how far each number in the data set is from the mean. In practice, it often shows how much something changes. In this article, we will analyze different methods of calculating variance in Excel. Continue reading

## How to add vertical line to Excel chart: scatter plot, bar chart and line graph

Even in the modern versions of Excel, there is no easy way to insert a vertical line in a chart. However, "no easy way" does not mean no way at all. We will just have to do a little lateral thinking! Continue reading

## Google Sheets percentage formulas - usage and examples

You may think percentage calculations are useful only if you use them for work. But in reality, they help you in everyday life. Do you know how to tip properly? Is this discount a real deal? How much will you pay with this interest rate? Come find the answers to these and other similar questions in this article. Continue reading

## How to make a loan amortization schedule in Excel (with extra payments)

The tutorial shows how to make an amortization schedule in Excel to detail periodic payments on an amortizing loan or mortgage, including an amortization schedule with extra payments and a variable number of periods. Continue reading

## Excel IPMT function to calculate interest portion of a loan payment

The interest portion of a loan payment can be calculated manually by multiplying the period's interest rate by the remaining balance. But Microsoft Excel has a special function for this – the IPMT function. In this tutorial, we will go in-depth explaining its syntax and providing real-life formula examples. Continue reading

## How to compare data in two Google sheets or columns

Whether there's summer knocking on our doors or winter invading Westeros, we still work in Google Sheets and have to compare different pieces of tables with one another. In this article, I'm sharing ways of matching your data and giving away tips on doing that swiftly. Continue reading

## Excel PPMT function with formula examples

When you make periodic payments on a loan or mortgage, a certain part of each payment goes towards the interest and the remainder is applied to the loan principal. In this tutorial, we will look at how to use the PPMT function to calculate the principal portion of the payment. Continue reading

## Merge data from duplicate rows in Google Sheets based on a unique column

Combining duplicate rows in your spreadsheets may turn to one of the most intricate tasks. Let's see what Google formulas can help and get to know one smart add-on that does all the job for you. Continue reading

## How to use PMT function in Excel with formula examples

Before you borrow money it's good to know how a loan works. Thanks to the Excel financial functions such as PMT, PPMT and IPMT, computing periodic payments for a loan is easy. In this tutorial, we will have a closer look at the PMT function. Continue reading

## How to add error bars in Excel: standard and custom

Scientists love quantifying different things, and they even found a way to quantify uncertainty. For this, they calculate confidence intervals, or margins of error, and display them by using error bars. Continue reading

## Outlook Quick Parts and AutoText: how to create, edit and use

Like many Outlook users, you may often need to send the same text over and over again – new offers to your business partners, replies to prospective clients, reports to supervisors, and so on. Do you still do it the long and tedious keystroke way? In this case, you'll certainly find Quick Parts very useful. Continue reading

## Google Sheets: everyday formulas examples

Google Sheets is a great platform to manage data tables. But are there any easy functions you can use for daily calculations? Find out inside. Continue reading

## TREND function and other ways to do trend analysis in Excel

These days when technologies, markets and customer needs are changing so rapidly, it is critical that you move with trends, and not against them. Trend analysis can help you identify underlying patterns in data movements and project future behavior. Continue reading

## Back to Basics: create and edit Google Sheets formulas

After reading this article, you’ll be able to make and edit your own simple Google Sheets formulas. Here you’ll find examples of nested functions and a few tips on how to swiftly copy a formula to other cells. Continue reading

## How to forecast in Excel: linear and non-linear forecasting methods

In statistics, there exist many different forecasting techniques and some of these techniques are already implemented in Excel. This tutorial will teach you how to forecast in Excel based on historical data and may help you save money on specialized forecasting software. Continue reading

## Back to Basics: formulas in Google Sheets

Today I'm going to bring formulas in Google Sheets to the table. I'll start with the elements they consist of, remind you how they are calculated, and tell a difference between plain and complex formulas. Continue reading

## Excel FORECAST functions with formula examples

In Microsoft Excel, there are several functions that can help you create linear and exponential smoothing forecasts based on historical data such as sales, budgets, cash flows, stock prices, and the like. Continue reading

## How to use Flash Fill in Excel 365 - 2013

Flash Fill is one of the most amazing features of Excel. It grabs a tedious task that would take hours to be performed manually and executes it automatically in a flash. Continue reading