How to merge two or more tables in Excel

Svetlana Cheusheva by , updated on

In this tutorial, you will find some tricks on merging Excel tables by matching data in one or more columns as well as combining worksheets based on column headers.

When analyzing data in Excel, how often do you have all necessary information gathered in a single worksheet? Almost never! It is a very common situation when different pieces of data are dispersed across many worksheets and workbooks. Fortunately, there are a few different ways to combine data from multiple tables into one, and this tutorial will teach you how to do this quickly and effectively.

How to merge two tables in Excel with formulas

Whatever task you need to perform in your worksheets, where do you look for a solution in the first place? Like many users, I usually go to the Formulas tab and open a list of functions. Merging tables is no exception :)

How to join tables with VLOOKUP

If you are to merge two tables based on one column, VLOOKUP is the right function to use.

Supposing you have two tables in two different sheets: the main table contains the seller names and products, and the lookup table contains the names and amounts. You want to combine these two tables by matching data in the Seller column: Two tables to join into one

As you see, the order of the names in the main table does not correspond with that in the lookup table, therefore a simple copy/pasting technique won't work.

To combine two tables by a matching column (Seller), you enter this formula in C2 in the main table:

=VLOOKUP($A2,'Lookup table'!$A$2:$B$10,2,FALSE)


  • $A2 is the value you are looking for.
  • 'Lookup table'!$A$2:$B$10 is the table to search (please pay attention that we lock the range with absolute cell references).
  • 2 is the number of the column from which to retrieve the value.

Copy the formula down the column, and you will get a merged table consisting of the main table, plus the matched data pulled from the lookup table: Merging two tables with a VLOOKUP formula

Please be aware that Excel VLOOKUP has several limitations, the most critical of which are 1) inability to pull data from a column to the left of the lookup column and 2) a hardcoded column number breaks a formula when you add or remove columns in the lookup table. On the bright side, you can easily reorder the returned columns simply by changing the number in the col_index_num argument.

Tip. If you have an Excel 365 subscription, then you can use a more powerful successor of VLOOKUP - Excel XLOOKUP function.

How to merge tables in Excel with INDEX MATCH

If you are looking for a more powerful and versatile alternative to the VLOOKUP function, embrace this INDEX MATCH combination:

INDEX (return_range, MATCH (lookup_value, lookup_range, 0))

The syntax is explained in detail in this tutorial: INDEX / MATCH in Excel. And here I will show you how to use this formula to look up from right to left, something that VLOOKUP is unable to do.

Let's say you have another lookup table with order IDs in the first column and you wish to copy those IDs to the main table by matching the seller names. For better visualization, both tables are put on the same sheet: Two tables to merge by left lookup

To accomplish the task, you supply the following arguments to the Index Match formula:

  • Return_range­ ­- $E$2:$E$10
  • Lookup_value - $A2
  • Lookup_range - $F$2:$F$10

Please notice the $ sign that locks the ranges to prevent them from changing as you copy the formula down the table:

The completed formula looks as follows:

=INDEX($E$2:$E$10, MATCH($A2, $F$2:$F$10, 0))

…and combines data from two tables perfectly: The INDEX MATCH formula to combine two tables in Excel

In Excel 365, you can use the new XLOOKUP function for the same purpose:

=XLOOKUP(A2, $F$2:$F$10, $E$2:$E$10, "Not found")

How to combine tables by matching multiple columns

If the two tables you wish to join do not have a unique identifier, such as an order id or SKU, you can match values in two or more columns by using this formula:

INDEX(lookup_table, MATCH(1, (lookup_value1=lookup_range1) * (lookup_value2=lookup_range2), 0), return_column_number)

Note. It is an array formula, so please remember to press Ctrl + Shift + Enter to enter it correctly.

The formula's breakdown can be found here: Look up with multiple criteria. For now, let's focus on the practical usage.

Assuming you have the following two tables to be combined into one. Because the Order ID column is missing in the lookup table, the only way to match the orders is by Seller and Product: The tables to be merged by matching data in two columns

Based on the above screenshot, let's define the arguments for our formula:

  • Lookup_table - $F$2:$H$9
  • Lookup_value1 - $B2
  • Lookup_range1 - $F$2:$F$9
  • Lookup_value2 - $C2
  • Lookup_range2 - $G$2:$G$9
  • Return_column_number­ ­- 3

Again, be sure to fix all the ranges with absolute cell references so that they won't change when you copy the formula down:

=INDEX($F$2:$H$9, MATCH(1, ($B2=$F$2:$F$9) * ($C2=$G$2:$G$9), 0), 3)

Enter the formula in D3, press Ctrl + Shift + Enter, copy it to the below rows and check the result: An array formula to combine tables by matching values in multiple columns

To have a closer look at the above examples and probably reverse-engineer the formulas, you are welcome to download our sample workbook to Merge Two Tables in Excel.

Join multiple tables into one with Excel Power Query

In situations when you need to combine two or more tables with different numbers of rows and columns, Excel Power Query may come in handy. However, please be aware that joining tables with Power Query cannot be done with a mere couple of clicks. Explaining all the nuances would take far more space than we have here, so I will just briefly outline the main features:

  • Power Query can merge two tables by matching one or several columns.
  • The source tables can be on the same sheet or in different worksheets.
  • The original tables are not changed. The data is combined into a new table that can be imported in an existing or a new worksheet.
  • In Excel 2016 - Excel 365, Power Query is an inbuilt feature. In Excel 2010 and Excel 2013, it can be downloaded as an add-in.

The detailed guidance can be found in this tutorial: How to join tables with Excel Power Query.

Merge Tables Wizard - quick way to join tables by matching columns

If you are not very comfortable with Excel formulas yet, nor do you have time to figure out the arcane quirks of Power Query, our Merge Tables Wizard could be your time-saver. Below I will show three most popular uses cases.

Example 1. Combine two tables by multiple columns

If you find the array formula for columns match hard to remember, rely on our add-in to do the job quickly and perfectly.

For this example, we will be using the already familiar tables and join them based on 2 columns, Seller and Product. Please note that the lookup table has 2 more columns than the main table: Two tables to be combined by multiple columns

With the Merge Tables Wizard added to your Excel ribbon, here's what you need to do:

  1. Select any cell within your main table and click the Merge Two Tables button on the Ablebits Data tab: Click the Merge Two Tables button on the ribbon.
  2. Make sure the add-in got the range right, and click Next: Select the main table.
  3. Select the lookup table, and click Next: Select the lookup table.
  4. Specify the column pairs to match, Seller and Product in our case, and click Next: Specify the column pairs to match.

    Tip. If the text case in the key columns matters, check the Case-sensitive matching box to treat uppercase and lowercase as different characters.

  5. Optionally, choose the columns to update with the values from the lookup table. Since there is nothing to update in the Order IDs column, we leave it unselected, and simply click Next. Choose the columns to update.
  6. Select the columns to add to the main table and click Next. Select the columns to add.
  7. In this step, you tell the wizard how exactly you want the tables to be merged. All the options have descriptive labels, so I won't go into long explanations. If you are unsure about a certain option, click the question mark next to it, and a small diagram will show you how the tables are going to be combined.

The default options work just fine in our case, so we click Finish without changing anything: Specify how the tables should be merged.

Allow the wizard a few seconds for processing and review the result: Two tables are merged into one.

As you can see in the screenshot above, the wizard has done the following:

  1. Added the Amount column by matching the seller name and product in both tables.
  2. Added the Status column that allows you to easily filter matching and new rows. If you don't want it, clear the corresponding box in the final step.
  3. New rows that were present only in the lookup table were copied to the end and highlighted in blue.
    • If you don't want to highlight new rows, unselect Set background color for all added rows in the last step.
    • If you don't want to add new rows, unselect Add non-matching rows to the end of the main table in the last step.

Example 2. Join tables and update selected columns

In case your main table contains some outdated data, you can have it updated with the corresponding values from the lookup table.

As an example, let's merge 2 tables by Order ID and update the values in the Price column: Joining two tables and updating the selected column

To get the result shown in the above image, this is what you need to do:

Step 1. Select the main table.

Step 2. Select the lookup table.

Step 3. Choose Order ID as the matching column.

Step 4. Select Price as the column to update.

Step 5. Skip it because there are no columns to add.

Step 6. Since there are a few gaps in the New price column, we choose to update only if cells in the lookup table contain data. Optionally, you can highlight the updated cells with any color of your choosing. The screenshot below shows the settings: Update main table only if cells in the lookup table contain data.

Tip. To prevent overwriting your existing data, you can update only empty cells in the main table.

Example 3. Merge multiple matches from two tables

In situations when a lookup table contains several occurrences on the lookup value, you may want to pull them all to your main table. The task can be accomplished with one of the non-trivial array formulas described in Vlookup to return multiple matches in Excel. Or you can do it the easy way with the Merge Tables Wizard.

Supposing your main table contains just one order of each seller, and the lookup table contains additional orders. Now you want to combine all the orders in one table, grouped by seller name like this: Merging multiple matches from two tables

Looks like a lot of work to do? Not if you have the Merge Tables Wizard at your disposal :)

Step 1. Select the main table.

Step 2. Select the lookup table.

Step 3. Choose Seller as the column to match.

Step 4. Update Order ID and Product.

Step 5. There are no columns to add.

Step 6. Insert additional matching rows after the row with the same key value. Optionally, set a background color for added rows to review the changes with a quick glance: Insert additional matching rows after the row with the same key value.

The above examples show just 3 of many possible ways to join tables in Excel. If you are curious to see other scenarios that the Merge Table Wizards can handle, please check out the visuals on this page. Or you can download a 30-day trial version and give it a shot.

Combine tables in Excel by column headers

In the above examples, we were merging two tables that have identical columns and pulling data from one table to another. In case you want to join multiple tables from different sheets into one based on columns headers, our Combine Sheets add-in is the right tool for the job.

The below image shows the source tables and desired result: Combining tables by column headers

And here's how you can accomplish the task:

  1. On your Excel ribbon, go to the Ablebits tab > Merge group, and click the Combine Sheets button: Combine Sheets for Excel
  2. Select all the worksheets you want to merge into one.

    If you'd like to combine just one table, not all data, hover over the sheet's name, and then click the Collapse dialog icon on the right to select a range: Select a range to combine.

  3. Choose the columns you want to combine, Order ID and Seller in this example: Choose the columns to combine
  4. Select additional options, if needed. We go with the default ones that work perfectly in most cases: Select additional options if needed.
  5. Finally, specify where you want to put the resulting table, and click Combine: Specify where you want to put the resulting table.

Done! The three tables are combined into one exactly like shown in the beginning of this example.

More tools to merge tables in Excel

The Merge Tables Wizard and Combine Sheets are the most popular tools to join tables in Excel. If you have some other task in mind, chances are that you will also find a quick solution on the Ablebits Data tab: Merging and combining tools for Excel

Let me briefly describe what each of these add-ins does:

Merge Two Tables - joins two tables that have one or more identical columns, as shown in these examples.

Combine Sheets - merges multiple worksheets into one based on column headers, like we did a moment ago in this example.

Merge Duplicates - combines duplicate rows by key columns.

Consolidate Sheets - joins tables together and summarizes their data.

Copy Sheets - provides 4 different ways to merge sheets in Excel.

Merge Cells - merge cells, columns, and rows without losing data, even if a selection contains multiple values.

Vlookup Wizard - quick way to build a Vlookup or Index/Match formula best suited for your data set.

Compare Sheets - find, highlight, and merge differences between two worksheets.

Compare Multiple Sheets - highlight differences in two or more sheets.

All the above features as well as 70+ other time-saving tools are included with our Ultimate Suite for Excel. An evaluation version is available for download right below this post. I thank you for reading and hope to see you on our blog next week!

Available downloads

Ultimate Suite 14-day fully-functional version (.exe file)