Excel date functions - formula examples of DATE, TODAY, etc.

This is the final part of our Excel Date Tutorial that offers an overview of all Excel date functions, explains their basic uses and provides lots of formula examples.

Microsoft Excel provides a ton of functions to work with dates and times. Each function performs a simple operation and by combining several functions within one formula you can solve more complex and challenging tasks.

In the previous 12 parts of our Excel dates tutorial, we have studied the main Excel date functions in detail. In this final part, we are going to summarize the gained knowledge and provide links to a variety the formula examples to help you find the function best suited for calculating your dates.

The main function to calculate dates in Excel:

Get current date and time:

Convert dates to / from text:

Retrieve dates in Excel:

Calculate date difference:

Calculate workdays:

Excel DATE function

DATE(year, month, day) returns a serial number of a date based on the year, month and day values that you specify.

When it comes to working with dates in Excel, DATE is the most essential function to understand. The point is that other Excel date functions not always can recognize dates entered in the text format. So, when performing date calculations in Excel, you'd better supply dates using the DATE function to ensure the correct results.

Here are a few Excel DATE formula examples:

=DATE(2015, 5, 20) - returns a serial number corresponding to 20-May-2015.

=DATE(YEAR(TODAY()), MONTH(TODAY()), 1) - returns the first day of the current year and month.

=DATE(2015, 5, 20)-5 - subtracts 5 days from May 20, 2015.

Excel DATE formula examples

At first sight, the Excel DATE function looks very simple, however, it does have a number of specificities pointed out in the Excel DATE tutorial.

Below you will find a few more examples where the Excel DATE function is part of bigger formulas:

Excel TODAY function

The TODAY() function returns today's date, exactly as its name suggests.

TODAY is arguably one of the easiest Excel functions to use because it has no arguments at all. Whenever you need to get today's date in Excel, enter the following formula is a cell:


Apart from this obvious use, the Excel TODAY function can be part of more complex formulas and calculations based on today's date. For example, to add 7 days to the current date, enter the following formula in a cell:


To add 30 weekdays to today's date excluding weekend days, use this one:

Formula examples to get today's date in Excel

Note. The date returned by the TODAY function in Excel updates automatically when your worksheet is recalculated to reflect the current date.

For more formula examples demonstrating the use of the TODAY function in Excel, please check out the following tutorials:

Excel NOW function

NOW() function returns the current date and time. As well as TODAY, it does not have any arguments. If you wish to display today's date and current time in your worksheet, simply put the following formula in a cell:


Note. As well as TODAY, Excel NOW is a volatile function that refreshes the returned value every time the worksheet is recalculated. Please note, the cell with the NOW() formula does not auto update in real-time, only when the workbook is reopened or the worksheet is recalculated.

To force the spreadsheet to recalculate, and consequently get your NOW formula to update its value, press either Shift+F9 to recalculate only the active worksheet or F9 to recalculate all open workbooks.

To make the NOW() function automatically update every second or so, a VBA macro is needed (a few examples are available here).

Excel DATEVALUE function

DATEVALUE(date_text) converts a date in the text format to a serial number that represents a date.

The DATEVALUE function understands plenty of date formats as well as references to cells that contain "text dates". DATEVALUE comes in really handy to calculate, filter or sort dates stored as text and convert such "text dates" to the Date format.

A few simple DATEVALUE formula examples follow below:



=DATEVALUE("may 20, 2015")
DATEVALUE formula examples

And the following examples demonstrate how the DATEVALUE function can help with solving real-life tasks:

Excel TEXT function

In the pure sense, the TEXT function cannot be classified as one of Excel date functions because it can convert any numeric value, not only dates, to a text string.

With the TEXT(value, format_text) function, you can change the dates to text strings in a variety of formats, as demonstrated in the following screenshot.
Excel TEXT formula examples

Note. Though the values returned by the TEXT function may look like usual Excel dates, they are text values in nature and therefore cannot be used in other formulas and calculations.

Here are a few more TEXT formula examples that you may find helpful:

Excel DAY function

DAY(serial_number) function returns a day of the month as an integer from 1 to 31.

Serial_number is the date corresponding to the day you are trying to get. It can be a cell reference, a date entered by using the DATE function, or returned by other formulas.

Here are a few formula examples:

=DAY(A2) - returns the day of the date in A2

=DAY(DATE(2015,1,1)) - returns the day of 1-Jan-2015

=DAY(TODAY()) - returns the day of today's date
Examples of using the DAY function in Excel

You can find more DAY formula examples by clicking the following links:

Excel MONTH function

MONTH(serial_number) function in Excel returns the month of a specified date as an integer ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December).

For example:

=MONTH(A2) - returns the month of a date in cell A2.

=MONTH(TODAY()) - returns the current month.

The MONTH function is rarely used in Excel date formulas on its own. Most often you would utilize it in conjunction with other functions as demonstrated in the following examples:

For the detail explanation of the MONTH function's syntax and plenty more formula examples, please check out the following tutorial: Using the MONTH function in Excel.

Excel YEAR function

YEAR(serial_number) returns a year corresponding to a given date, as a number from 1900 to 9999.

The Excel YEAR function is very straightforward and you will hardly run into any difficulties when using it in your date calculations:

=YEAR(A2) - returns the year of a date in cell A2.

=YEAR("20-May-2015") - returns the year of the specified date.

=YEAR(DATE(2015,5,20)) - a more reliable method to get the year of a given date.

=YEAR(TODAY()) - returns the current year.

Examples of using the YEAR function in Excel

For more information about the YEAR function, please see:

Excel EOMONTH function

EOMONTH(start_date, months) function returns the last day of the month a given number of months from the start date.

Like most of Excel date functions, EOMONTH can operate on dates input as cell references, entered by using the DATE function, or results of other formulas.

  • A positive value in the months argument adds the corresponding number of months to the start date, for example:

    =EOMONTH(A2, 3) - returns the last day of the month, 3 months after the date in cell A2.

  • A negative value in the months argument subtracts the corresponding number of months from the start date:

    =EOMONTH(A2, -3) - returns the last day of the month, 3 months before the date in cell A2.

  • A zero in the months argument forces the EOMONTH function to return the last day of the start date's month:

    =EOMONTH(DATE(2015,4,15), 0) - returns the last day in April, 2015.

  • To get the last day of the current month, enter the TODAY function in the start_date argument and 0 in months:

    =EOMONTH(TODAY(), 0)

EOMONTH formulas to get the last day on the month in Excel

You can find a few more EOMONTH formula examples in the following articles:

Excel WEEKDAY function

WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type]) function returns the day of the week corresponding to a date, as a number from 1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday).

  • Serial_number can be a date, a reference to a cell containing a date, or a date returned by some other Excel function.
  • Return_type (optional) - is a number that determines which day of the week shall be considered the first day.

You can find the complete list of available return types in the following tutorial: Calculating days of week in Excel (WEEKDAY function).

And here are a few WEEKEND formula examples:

=WEEKDAY(A2) - returns the day of the week corresponding to a date in cell A2; the 1st day of the week is Sunday (default).

=WEEKDAY(A2, 2) - returns the day of the week corresponding to a date in cell A2; the week begins on Monday.

=WEEKDAY(TODAY()) - returns a number corresponding to today's day of the week; the week begins on Sunday.
Excel WEEKDAY formulas to return the day of the week

The WEEKDAY function can help you determine which dates in your Excel sheet are working days and which ones are weekend days, and also sort, filter or highlight workdays and weekends:

Excel DATEDIF function

DATEDIF(start_date, end_date, unit) function is specially designed to calculate the difference between two dates in days, months or years.

Which time interval to use for calculating the date difference depends on the letter you enter in the last argument:

=DATEDIF(A2, TODAY(), "d") - calculates the number of days between the date in A2 and today's date.

=DATEDIF(A2, A5, "m") - returns the number of complete months between the dates in A2 and B2.

=DATEDIF(A2, A5, "y") - returns the number of complete years between the dates in A2 and B2.
DATEDIF formulas to calculate the date difference in Excel

These are just the basic applications of the DATEDIF function and it is capable of much more, as demonstrated in the following examples:

Excel WEEKNUM function

WEEKNUM(serial_number, [return_type]) - returns the week number of a specific date as an integer from 1 to 53.

For example, the below formula returns 1 because the week containing January 1 is the first week in the year.


The following tutorial explains all the specificities on the Excel WEEKNUM function: WEEKNUM function - calculating week number in Excel.

Alternatively you can skip directly to one of the formula examples:

Excel EDATE function

EDATE(start_date, months) function returns the serial number of the date that is the specified number of months before or after the start date.

For example:

=EDATE(A2, 5) - adds 5 months to the date in cell A2.

=EDATE(TODAY(), -5) - subtracts 5 months from today's date.

For a detailed explanation of EDATE formulas illustrated with formula examples, please see: Add or subtract months to a date with EDATE function.

Excel YEARFRAC function

YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis]) function calculates the proportion of the year between 2 dates.

This very specific function can be used to solve practical tasks such as calculating age from date of birth.

Excel WORKDAY function

WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays]) function returns a date N workdays before or after the start date. It automatically excludes weekend days from calculations as well as any holidays that you specify.

This function is very helpful for calculating milestones and other important events based on the standard working calendar.

For example, the following formula adds 45 weekdays to the start date in cell A2, ignoring holidays in cells B2:B8:

=WORKDAY(A2, 45, B2:B85)

For the detailed explanation of WORKDAY's syntax and more formula examples, please check out WORKDAY function - add or subtract workdays in Excel.

Excel WORKDAY.INTL function

WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, days, [weekend], [holidays]) is a more powerful variation of the WORKDAY function introduced in Excel 2010 and also available Excel 2013 and 2016.

WORKDAY.INTL allows calculating a date N number of workdays in the future or in the past with custom weekend parameters.

For example, to get a date 20 workdays after the start date in cell A2, with Monday and Sunday counted as weekend days, you can use either of the following formulas:

=WORKDAY.INTL(A2, 20, 2, 7)


=WORKDAY.INTL(A2, 20, "1000001")

Of course, it might be difficult to grasp the essence from this short explanation, but more formula examples illustrated with screenshots will make things really easy: WORKDAY.INTL - calculating workdays with custom weekends.

Excel NETWORKDAYS function

NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays]) function returns the number of weekdays between two dates that you specify. It automatically excludes weekend days and, optionally, the holidays.

For example, the following formula calculates the number of whole workdays between the start date in A2 and end date in B2, ignoring Saturdays and Sundays and excluding holidays in cells C2:C5:


You can find a comprehensive explanation of the NETWORKDAYS function's arguments illustrated with formula examples and screenshots in the following tutorial: NETWORKDAYS function - calculating workdays between two dates.


NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays]) is a more powerful modification of the NETWORKDAYS function available in the modern versions of Excel 2010, Excel 2013 and Excel 2016. It also returns the number of weekdays between two dates, but lets you specify which days should be counted as weekends.

Here is a basic NETWORKDAYS formula:

=NETWORKDAYS(A2, B2, 2, C2:C5)

The formula calculates the number of workdays between the date in A2 (start_date) and the date in B2 (end_date), excluding the weekend days Sunday and Monday (number 2 in the weekend parameter), and ignoring holidays in cells C2:C5.

For full details about the NETWORKDAYS.INTL function, please see NETWORKDAYS function - counting workdays with custom weekends.

Hopefully, this 10K foot view on the Excel date functions has helped you gain the general understanding of how date formulas work in Excel. If you want to learn more, I encourage you to check out the formula examples referenced on this page. I thank you for reading and hope to see you again on our blog next week!

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310 responses to "Excel date functions - formula examples of DATE, TODAY, etc."

  1. Deepjyothi0212@gmail.com says:

    How to get the number of remaining days for a specific date, eg- if A1=29 I need 2 as a return in B1 if today's date is 27, same way if A1=3 I need 3 as a return in B1 if today is the last day of month.
    So please suggest any formula for this, if there is any.

  2. Christina says:

    I need to make daily sign-in sheets for company visitors. Is there any way to make one sign-in sheet and have the working days populate for the rest of the month?

  3. khan says:

    start date and end date is greater than 6 months then count full year.
    for example
    01-01-2000 to 02-04-2019 the answer is 28 year 6 months and 1 day
    but i get the only 29 year only
    01-01-2000 to 01-04-2019 the answer is 28 year 5 months and 30 days
    but i get the only 28 year only
    any formula in excel

  4. Tyler Price says:


    If I use the formula for today's date, will the date update every day?
    I'm looking for a formula to log the current date when a certain value is reached, but if the TODAY formula updates to current day I won't be able to log the date the value is reached.
    Can someone please clarify how this works? And if it does only give the current date, can you please let me know if there is a formula to log the current date and not update daily?


  5. Severin says:

    I need to calculate prorated days for real estate closings automatically for the tax prorations. I have everything figured out except I have to manually enter the prorated date. For example, house closes june 1st, it will always calculate days until june 30th. I simply have a formula subtracting june 30th from june 1st to give me number of days, however, i have to constantly monitor the 6/30 date to make sure the year is the following june 30th, I'd like to automate this. how do i enter a formula that says I want this cell to say 6/30/(after todays date)? so, if today is 8/23/19 I want the prorated date to read 6/30/2020. If it were say, 4/30/19, I want the prorated date to read 6/30/19, so always the june 30th after whatever date.

  6. abdul rahman says:

    i try to find the remaining day, i try all formula but showing only "VALUE" command only
    what i want to do..?

  7. Avi Kenaani says:

    I have a field like "Thursday, 11/7/2019" how to extract only the date without the day of the week.

    Thank you,

  8. Leah Shaull says:

    I am trying to find the baseline percentage of training hours that an employe should be at on the current day. So if an employee has 3000 minutes worth of training to do I would like to have a cell that tells me the percentage that the should have completed on that day.

  9. Matthew Yorke says:


    How do I add a leap year into an excel formula. I have one set for the Julian calendar which works off a number per day of the year for each of the 365 days. However, I cannot get it to figure out leap years. The formula I am using at the minute is: =IF(C2="","",DATE(YEAR(TODAY()),1,C5)). C2 is where we put the code and C5 is the date.


    • Hi Matthew,
      The same formula you sent will work in leap year too. It will simply consider February 29th as the 60th day of the year.

      If however, you need to check if the year is leap or not, here is the formula for you:
      =IF(MOD(YEAR(A1), 4), "normal year", "leap year")

      Where A1 is the cell with a date.

  10. darjan says:

    Hi all,
    I need formula that will count only number of days that have passed - 1 day, for each month.
    =DATEDIF(A2, TODAY(), "d") this formula counts number of days that have passed since specific date, I need end that also.

    Which means the final number for January should be 31, for February 28(29), for March 31.

    Thank you

  11. Mustakeem Qureshi says:

    I want list of formulas to change the date range 01/01/2020 - 01/31/2020 with formula.

    If in between I 'm changing the date then it should continue from the date i changed.

    Mustakeem Qureshi

  12. JP says:

    Is there a formula or an option that will restrict Now() and Today() function to update automatically? I want them to stay fixed from the day I select "yes" on the cell.

    This are my current function commands:
    =IF(I4="","",IF(I4="yes",TODAY(),"Check SP"))
    =IF(I5="","",IF(I5="yes",NOW(),"Check SP"))

  13. JA says:

    I'm trying to concatenate 2 dates (arrival and departure) so that the result looks like this: Feb 2 - Feb 5 or, if there's a month boundary: OCT 28 - NOV 20

    I can't get a formula to work using DATE or TEXT, etc. For example:

    There are no helpful error messages.
    Any ideas?


  14. Larry Assinewe says:

    Could I use =DATE ( for copying another date?

  15. ANNA CUELLAR says:


  16. Emmanuel says:

    How do I calculate the days completed based on the ()Todays (current date) from a start date and an end date, please?
    Start Date: 20/04/2020
    End Date: 10/05/2020
    Today's Date: 26/04/2020
    Numbers of days completed:?
    What's the formula to calculate the number of days completed, taking into account the end date?

  17. Bonnie Schube says:

    What is the formula to put two strings together. I need =DATEDIF(A1,A2,"M") but if the A2 is blank calculate by "today" =DATEDIF(A1,"TODAY(),"M")

  18. Myra says:

    How do I calculate the collection date when 57 days credit term starts from the end of each transaction week?
    Invoice date is April 1, 2020

    • Hello Myra!
      I’m sorry but your task is not entirely clear to me.
      For me to be able to help you better, please describe your task in more detail. Please let me know in more detail what you were trying to find, what formula you used and what problem or error occurred. It’ll help me understand it better and find a solution for you. Thank you.

      • Myra says:

        Hello Alex,
        Sorry for the confusion. I'm not familiar with formulas but I can provide you the details. I'm trying to compute the due date of my invoice. Credit term is 57 days. It starts from the end of transaction week. Invoice date is April 1, 2020. Hope you could help me. Thanks.

  19. Myra says:

    Hello Alex,
    What if instead of invoice date, it should start from the end of transaction week? Every Friday is the starting date but the invoice date is any date like April 1 Wednesday and 13, 2020 Monday. Thanks

    • Hello Myra!
      It is a pity that you did not immediately indicate all the conditions. It would take significantly less time.
      Please try the following formula

      =A3+(5 > WEEKDAY(A3,2))*(5-WEEKDAY(A3,2))+(5 < WEEKDAY(A3,2))*(12-WEEKDAY(A3,2))+57

      A3 is the invoice date.

      • Myra says:

        Hello Alex,
        Sorry for the late reply. Wow, that's a long formula. Will try to understand this. Thank you for helping me. Stay safe always. :)

  20. Liz Stewart says:

    I can't seem to figure out which combination of formulas i need to create the following result. One column has the date of last purchase of an item and the cell next to it would have a formula that would take that date and add a quantity of days to get the date in the future, and be able to change when the date of last purchase changes. So as a specific example last purchase date is 6/19/2020 the cell next to it then would populate the date 90 days in the future which would be 9/17/2020. Then on 9/17/2020, the cell would update with the date 90 days from that once i enter it in the 'last purchase' cell. Thanks for the help!

  21. Baskar Veeraswamy says:

    Is there any formula to return previous day if the time is between 00:00 ~ 05:00 hrs

  22. Sam says:

    Am still using excel 2007. So Daily making invoices by date by date. Suddenly when I open the old invoice for checks it’s showing as TODAYs date(current) .. so I need to solve that when opening old document. is there anyone can help me plz

  23. Scott D Keller says:

    I'm trying to populate todays date when a cell is not blank. Here is what I have for a formula:
    =IF(ISBLANK([@[Shipping Release]]),"",TODAY())
    I dont want the entire column to change to todays date but instead populate the day that information was input and not automatically update. Any ideas?

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