Excel formulas, page 4

How to use Excel IRR function to calculate internal rate of return

IRR in Excel is one of the financial functions for calculating the internal rate of return, which is frequently used in capital budgeting to judge projected returns on investments. Continue reading

How to calculate NPV in Excel - net present value formula examples

Microsoft Excel has a special function for calculating NPV, but its use can be tricky especially if you have little experience in financial modeling. The purpose of this tutorial is to show you how the Excel NPV function works and point out possible pitfalls when calculating the net present value of a series of cash flows. Continue reading

How to calculate percentage variance in Excel - percent change formula

In Microsoft Excel, there are 6 different functions for calculating variance but all of them are designed to find variance in the classical sense, i.e. how far a set of values are spread out from their average. In this article, you will learn how to calculate percentage variance between two cells. Continue reading

How to calculate variance in Excel - VAR, VAR.S, VAR.P and other functions

Variance is one of the most useful tools in probability theory and statistics. In science, it describes how far each number in the data set is from the mean. In practice, it often shows how much something changes. In this article, we will analyze different methods of calculating variance in Excel. Continue reading

How to make a loan amortization schedule in Excel (with extra payments)

The tutorial shows how to make an amortization schedule in Excel to detail periodic payments on an amortizing loan or mortgage, including an amortization schedule with extra payments and a variable number of periods. Continue reading

Excel PPMT function with formula examples

When you make periodic payments on a loan or mortgage, a certain part of each payment goes towards the interest and the remainder is applied to the loan principal. In this tutorial, we will look at how to use the PPMT function to calculate the principal portion of the payment. Continue reading

How to use PMT function in Excel with formula examples

Before you borrow money it's good to know how a loan works. Thanks to the Excel financial functions such as PMT, PPMT and IPMT, computing periodic payments for a loan is easy. In this tutorial, we will have a closer look at the PMT function. Continue reading

How to forecast in Excel: linear and non-linear forecasting methods

In statistics, there exist many different forecasting techniques and some of these techniques are already implemented in Excel. This tutorial will teach you how to forecast in Excel based on historical data and may help you save money on specialized forecasting software. Continue reading

How to use Flash Fill in Excel 2019, 2016 and 2013

Flash Fill is one of the most amazing features of Excel. It grabs a tedious task that would take hours to be performed manually and executes it automatically in a flash. Continue reading

Excel cell reference: how to make and use

As simple as it seems, Excel cell reference confuses many users. How is a cell address defined in Excel? What is an absolute and relative reference and when each should be used? In this tutorial, you will find answers to these and many more questions. Continue reading

Structured reference in Excel tables

One of the most useful features of Excel tables are structured references. When you have just stumbled upon a special syntax for referencing tables, it may look boring and confusing, but after experimenting a bit you will surely see how useful and cool this feature is. Continue reading

How to do Spearman correlation in Excel

When doing correlation analysis in Excel, in most cases you will deal with the Pearson correlation. But when the underlying assumptions of the Pearson correlation (continuous variables, linearity, and normality) are not met, you can do the Spearman rank correlation instead of Pearson's. Continue reading

How to remove blank cells in Excel

Empty cells are not bad if you are intentionally leaving them in right places for aesthetic reasons. But blank cells in wrong places are certainly undesirable. Luckily, there is a relatively easy way to remove blanks in Excel. Continue reading

How to delete blank columns in Excel

The prospect of reviewing all the columns in your worksheet and removing the empty ones manually is definitely something you'd want to avoid. Luckily, Microsoft Excel provides a great lot of different features, and by using those features in creative ways you can cope with almost any task. Continue reading

Excel IF OR function with formula examples

IF is one of the most popular Excel functions and very useful on its own. Combined with the logical functions such as AND, OR, and NOT, the IF function has even more value because it allows you to test multiple conditions in desired combinations. Continue reading

How to subtract in Excel: formula for numbers, percentages, dates and times

Subtraction is one of the four basic arithmetic operations, and every primary school pupil knows that to subtract one number from another you use the minus sign. This good old method also works for subtracting numbers and cells in Excel. Continue reading

Excel TRANSPOSE function to rotate data from columns to rows

Some Excel users prefer organizing data vertically in columns while others choose horizontal arrangement in rows. In situations when you need to quickly change the orientation of a given range, TRANSPOSE is the function to use. Continue reading

How to use LINEST function in Excel - formula examples

In this tutorial, intended for beginners, we will touch only lightly on theory and calculations behind the Excel LINEST function. Our main focus will be on providing you with a formula that simply works and which you can easily customize for your data. Continue reading

How to convert text to number in Excel

Sometimes values in your Excel worksheets look like numbers, but they don't add up, don't multiply and produce errors in formulas. A common reason for this is numbers formatted as text. This tutorial will teach you how to convert numeric strings to actual numbers. Continue reading

Excel VALUE function to convert text to numbers

Normally, Microsoft Excel recognizes numbers stored as text and converts them to the numerical format automatically. However, if the data is in a format that Excel cannot recognize, numeric values can be left as text making calculations impossible. Continue reading