# How to do calculations in Excel

The tutorial shows how to do arithmetic calculations in Excel and change the order of operations in your formulas.

When it comes to calculations, there is almost noting that Microsoft Excel cannot do, from totaling a column of numbers to solving complex linear programming problems. For this, Excel provides a few hundred predefined formulas, called Excel functions. In addition, you can use Excel as a calculator to do math - add, divide, multiply, and subtract numbers as well as raise to power and find roots.

## How to do calculations in Excel

Making calculations in Excel is easy. Here's how:

• Type the equal symbol (=) in a cell. This tells Excel that you are entering a formula, not just numbers.
• Type the equation you want to calculate. For example, to add up 5 and 7, you type =5+7
• Press the Enter key to complete your calculation. Done!

Instead of entering numbers directly in your calculation formula, you can put them in separate cells, and then reference those cells in your formula, e.g. =A1+A2+A3

The following table shows how to perform basic arithmetic calculations in Excel.

 Operation Operator Example Description Addition + (plus sign) =A1+A2 Adds up the numbers in cells A1 and A2. Subtraction - (minus sign) =A1-A2 Subtracts the number in A2 from the number in A1. Multiplication * (asterisk) =A1*A2 Multiplies the numbers in A1 and A2. Division / (forward slash) =A1/A2 Divides the number in A1 by the number in A2. Percent % (percent) =A1*10% Finds 10% of the number in A1. Raising to power (Exponentiation) ^ (caret) =A2^3 Raises the number in A2 to the power of 3. Square root SQRT function =SQRT(A1) Finds the square root of the number in A1. Nth root ^(1/n) (Where n is the root to find) =A1^(1/3) Finds the cube root of the number in A1.

The results of the above Excel calculation formulas may look something similar to this:

Apart from that, you can combine values from two or more cells in a single cell by using the concatenation operator (&) like this:

`=A2&" "&B2&" "&C2`

A space character (" ") is concatenated in between cells to separate the words:

You can also compare cells by using logical operators such as "greater than" (>), "less than" (<), "greater than or equal to" (>=), and "less than or equal to" (<=). The result of comparison are logical values of TRUE and FALSE:

## The order in which Excel calculations are performed

When you do two or more calculations in a single formula, Microsoft Excel calculates the formula from left to right, according to the order of operations shown in this table:

 Precedence Operation 1 Negation, i.e. reversing the number sign, as in -5, or -A1 2 Percent (%) 3 Exponentiation, i.e. raising to power (^) 4 Multiplication (*) and division (/), whichever comes first 5 Addition (+) and subtraction (-), whichever comes first 6 Concatenation (&) 7 Comparison (>, <, >=, <=, =)

Since the order of calculations affects the final result, you need to know how to change it.

## How to change the order of calculations in Excel

Like you do in math, you can change the order of Excel calculations by enclosing the part to be calculated first in parentheses.

For example, the calculation `=2*4+7` tells Excel to multiply 2 by 4, and then add 7 to the product. The result of this calculation is 15. By enclosing the addition operation in parentheses `=2*(4+7)`, you instruct Excel to add up 4 and 7 first, and then multiply the sum by 2. And the result of this calculation is 22.

Another example is finding a root in Excel. To get the square root of, say, 16, you can use either this formula:

`=SQRT(16)`

or an exponent of 1/2:

`=16^(1/2)`

Technically, the above equation tells Excel to raise 16 to the power of 1/2. But why do we enclose 1/2 in parentheses? Because if we don't, Excel will raise 16 to the power of 1 first (an exponent operation is performed before division), and then divide the result by 2. Since any number raised to the power of 1 is the number itself, we would end up dividing 16 by 2. In contrast, by enclosing 1/2 in parentheses you tell Excel to divide 1 by 2 first, and then raise 16 to the power of 0.5.

As you can see in the screenshot below, the same calculation with and without parentheses produces different results:

This is how you make calculations in Excel. I thank you for reading and hope to see you on our blog next week!

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3. Formula d11 it is 30.8the multiply to the 2.83 and add value in cell D 19 (16)

4. =(28.5-24)+(18.5-15) /2 = 3.5

hello,

how would i do this. This is an example of numbers that i will need to calculate

• Hi!
Firstly, you can only convert text to a formula using a VBA macro. Secondly, the result of your expression 3.5 is incorrectly calculated.

5. can use excel to calculate money or do basic account.
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6. Hi,
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THANKS

8. Greetings to u all;
Pls help me out, am Familiar with MS Excel but am still having a little challenge with it. The calculation aspect...pls I need assistance...!

Pls with all due of respect; Add me on WhatsApp...! 08134882649

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Im trying to excel to pick single or multiple values from a calculation and place them into certain rows/column's. For example excel has calculated a number 2.56 i need it to pick numbers from certain column's

65 10.03
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• Hello!
The formula below will do the trick for you:

=FILTER(A1:A4,(B1:B4=SMALL(FILTER(B1:B4,B1:B4>\$B\$8),1)) + (B1:B4=SMALL(FILTER(B1:B4,B1:B4>\$B\$8),2)))

Cell B8 = 2.56

Example:
Sulop M.S 75 (23.50) 36 (25) : What is the sum total of this column? Before adding all column it should be multiply for their each price.
DJ Sean 38 (23.50) 72 (25)

Thank you,

• Hello!
Where is the price here? Are these numbers in the column? What do they mean and what do you want to calculate? Please describe your problem in more detail.

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How I can sum only the number from cells like this FR - 1?

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Is this possible, and if so can someone please provide the formula?

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• Hi,
Your task is not completely clear to me. Without seeing your data it is difficult to give you any advice. Please describe your problem in more detail. Provide me with an example of the source data and the expected result. It’ll help me understand it better and find a solution for you.

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• Hello!
Write your formula =2+2*3 in cell A2. In cell A1 use the function =FORMULATEXT(A2)

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• Hello!
Unfortunately, without seeing your data it hard to give you advice. I recommend you a guide to working with pivot tables. If you have more specific questions and can give an example of the initial data and the desired result, I will try to help you.

30. Hi, I need to calculate the Inductance formula. The Reactance (XL) is in cell K56 and f=60. The calculation is XL/2PIf. I have tried ((K56)/(2*pi*60)) and variations of this and cannot get it correct. Can you help?

31. Question.. I want to have this formula in a cell (200)/(1+x/100)=n, I want the formula to be invisible in the box and only put out a number (n) when I type in a value for x in the formula cell, thanks

• Hello Matthew!

=IF(A1 <> "",(200)/(1+A1/100),"")

The formula will show the value only if cell A1 is not empty

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• Hello Kerleisha!
Probably, the error occurs because you have a number in one of the cells and the other cell contains a symbol, e.g. a space.
If it is not the case, please describe the problem in more detail so I will be able to help you better.

36. I am not the most skilled at excel , but am enjoying the discovery as i go.
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• thank you i used this and it worked ty

47. You are so good, I've learn a lot from you expecially the capitalization and the calculations.

good programmer keep it up

48. One last point, sorry to go on:
to illustrate, I'll plug in 66 as the tw, 100 as ra and 10 as rb. in the formula I get 60 and 6 for a and b, which seems like it did not respect the parenthesis, as 66*(100/(100+10))= 66*(100/110)= 66*0.9090909091= 60.0000000006, while 66*100/(100+10)=6600/110=60 which is what the formula gives me.

• Hi Rae,
1. Your formula is correct, you do not get the same result because of
rounding off. Check the result again with this formula (it will round to 10 decimal places):
=TEXT(66 * ROUND((100 / (100 + 10)),10),"0.0000000000")

2. Try these formulas:
tw= aw/(ra/(ra+rb))

or

= TEXT(60 / ROUND((100 / (100 + 10)),10),"0.0000000000")
tw=bw/(rb/(ra+rb))

or

= TEXT(6 / ROUND((10 / (100 + 10)),10),"0.0000000000")

And your last point, try the following:
bw=(aw/(ra/(ra+rb)))*(rb/(ra+rb))
aw=(bw/(rb/(ra+rb)))*(ra/(ra+rb)).

49. Hi, I have a 2 part question.
1st, upon looking at my formula to try to reverse engineer it, I noticed the math seems a bit weird. I have this formula to calculate the amounts of 2 components based on the ratio and the total weight (tw=total weight, ra=ratio a, rb=ratio b, aw=weight of part a, bw=weight of part b. I'll use these instead of the cell #'s here). My formula looks like this bw=tw*(rb/(ra+rb)) and the formula for the other part is ra=tw*(ra/(ra+rb)).
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Part 2; how can I create 2 formulas that will solve this backwards, as in, plug in the weight of a or b and get what my total weight and the weight of the other part as a result?
Thank you so much! I've been cracking my brain open over this for days and searching all over the web for an answer that I don't know an easy question to!!

• sorry, messed up the 2nd formula, that should be aw=tw*(ra/(ra+rb))

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